Recent Completed Project on Failure Analysis of HRSG IP Economiser Outlet Header Tube

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ETD is pleased to announce the successful recent completion of a root cause failure analysis project for a North American based plant.

The plant was experiencing a failure of the IP Economiser outlet header tube. During the HRSG inspection, a pin hole leak was observed on the stub tube of IP Econ OH and the plant decided to replace the portion. The pin hole leak was found 6mm away from header-tube weldment (fillet weld). After the incident, the client completed extensive inspection on the header and dye penetrant test and no abnormalities were found. Therefore, ETD was invited to submit a proposal to carry out failure analysis of this IP econ tube sample removed from the failed area. The work involved performing tube failure analysis study based on laboratory testing and assessment of one removed tube sample.

The objectives and scope of the work to be carried out for one tube sample was:

  • Visual and dimensional examination of the tube sample, including examination of the failure/damage location appearance and condition of internal and external tube surfaces and any deposits;

  • Metallographic examination of the tube sample to assess the condition of the microstructure and to identify the damage/failure mechanism(s);

  • Hardness testing and evaluation to determine the equivalent tensile strength values (using published hardness/UTS correlation tables) to assess the mechanical strength or softening of the tube material;

  • Chemical analysis of base material to determine the chemical composition of the tube material to establish actual material constituents;

  • Chemical analysis of internal oxide/ deposits to determine the presence of impurities and constituents that may lead to the failure (depending on the oxide thickness);

  • Estimation of tube operating temperature based on measurements of steam-side oxide thickness, and evaluation of remaining creep life;

  • Review of design drawings, tube arrangement, operating parameters, previous failure and maintenance history;

  • Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCA) based on the findings of above investigations;

  • Report covering results of investigations, failure analysis & recommendations for remedial actions to prevent repeat tube failures.

ETD has established expertise in the failure analysis. For more information about our failure analysis services please click here.

Recent Completed Project on Review of Tube Deposit Analysis Reports and Provide Recommendations for Boiler Chemical Cleaning

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ETD is pleased to announce the recent completion of a root cause failure analysis project.

A European based client approached ETD to provide a quote concerning matters on its boiler and was asked to perform review of 10 reports for tube deposit analysis and make recommendations for boiler chemical cleaning.

The scope of the work carried out included:

  • Reviewing previous 10 reports of tube deposit analysis conducted by a third party;

  • Reviewing design drawings of tube arrangement, design & operating parameters, previous failure and maintenance history of the boilers;

  • Making some risk calculations to establish the criticality of the situation to determine whether the boiler chemical cleaning is required immediately or not;

  • Making recommendations on the cleaning solvents (i.e. suitable solvents used for boiler tube chemical cleaning purposes) based on the results of reports review;

  • Preparing a final report covering results of all above investigations & recommendations for any suitable actions to be taken for safe operation of the boiler.

ETD has established expertise in the failure analysis. For more information about our failure analysis services please click here.

Recent Completed Project on Root Cause Failure Analysis of Waterwall Tube Sample

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ETD is pleased to announce the successful recent completion of a root cause failure analysis project.

A Middle Eastern based client was experiencing frequent boiler water wall tube failures and some of the tubes have ruptured. Due to the number of frequency of tube failures experienced in boiler water wall the urgency to be able to identify the problem and take palliative measures to stop or reduce the failure is evident. ETD was approached to provide a quotation to perform Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCA) of a Waterwall Tube Sample.

The principle objective of this investigation was to examine the failed tubes samples (two samples from two separate incidents) in order to determine the failure / damage mechanism(s), to assess the micro structural and mechanical condition of the tube material, to examine the internal and external surfaces of the tubes for corrosion / oxidation damage and to examine them for the presence of cracks and manufacturing defects. This led to the identification of the root cause of the failures and allowed ETD to make recommendations concerning remedial actions that may be possible for improving the tube life and avoiding repeat failures.

The scope of the work carried out was:

  • Review of the plant operation and tube failure history;

  • Visual and dimensional examination of the two tube samples;

  • Metallographic examination to determine the failure/ damage mechanism(s) to assess the micro structural condition of material and to identify any micro structural deterioration or defects (cracking, corrosion, etc.);

  • Hardness evaluation;

  • Chemical analysis of the tube bore deposits to determine the cause(s) of cracking and the chemical cleaning agent most appropriate for the job.

  • Deposit thickness will also be determined which also determines if chemical cleaning is required and what type. Recommendations will be made for suitable chemical cleaning companies, if required.

A full report was then issued detailing the findings of the investigation with all analytical data and photographic records. Including recommendations for appropriate chemical cleaning solvent formulation based on the analytical data.

For more information on our Failure Analysis services please click here.

Offer of Both Traditional and Innovative Plant ‘Inspection’ & ‘Life Assessment’ Services

In this Plant Services Brochure you will find useful and interesting information on ETD’s plant inspection and integrity/ life assessment services. These include:

a) Traditional NDE inspection: Using, for example, Boroscopy, PAUT (Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing), EMAT (Electromagnetic Acoustic Testing), PEC (Pulsed Eddy Current), LFET (Low Frequency Electromagnetic Testing), Replication (including replica assessment), Hardness testing, Wall Thickness profiling, Oxide Thickness measurement etc.

b) New state-of-the-art Innovative NDE Inspection Techniques: Developed through ETD’s collaborative joint industry projects. This includes equipment such as (details later in this brochure): a) Portable spark erosion ‘boat sampling’ machine (called EDSE), b) Portable Scanning Force Microscope (SFM) for on-site early stage nano and micro level damage detection especially in materials like P91, c) ‘Obikou’ pipe reinforcement technique which offers creep life extension of creep damaged seamless or seam welded pipes, by simply and quickly reinforcing them with multiple layers of a thin high-temperature alloy strip, and, d) Our newly invented first of its kind portable ‘precision’ hardness tester, called ‘Smart Sleeve’, which improves the accuracy of the ‘MIC 10’ or other portable hardness testers.

c) Integrity/ Life Assessment: In addition to inspection, ETD offers independent and impartial plant safe remaining life assessment using both deterministic and probabilistic techniques. It has its own software for crack assessment, RBM/ RBI and carries out routinely both root cause failure analysis (RCA), replica and life extension/ assessment for pressure parts and turbine components and RCM.

Details of the services and opportunities being offered can be seen by clicking on the image.

Root Cause Failure Analysis of P91 HP Steam Pipe for an Asian Power Plant

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Following a recent failure of a HP steam pipe, a client invited ETD to submit a proposal to carry out Remaining Life Assessment (RLA) of a HP bypass steam piping system and Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCA) of a failed pipe section. The work involved performing RLA and RCA study including recommendations to prevent any future failures based on data review, pipeline stress analysis, laboratory testing and assessment on the HP bypass steam piping system and the failed pipe section.

The objectives and scope of the work to be carried out was:

1. Perform metallurgical Assessment of the failed pipe section. This included the following tasks:

  • Visual (macroscopic analysis) and dimensional/ thickness examination of the pipe sample including internal scale, external appearance and condition of the pipe inner surface;
  • Chemical analysis of base material to determine the chemical composition of the pipe material to establish actual material constituents;
  • Chemical analysis of filler material to determine the chemical composition of the filler to establish actual material constituents.
  • Metallographic examination of the pipe sample using optical microscopy to assess the condition of internal and external surfaces, material degradation and also to identify the damage mechanism(s);
  • Fractographic assessment of the fractured surface using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) to confirm the damage mechanism(s);
  • Hardness testing and evaluation to determine the equivalent tensile strength values (using published hardness/UTS correlation tables) to assess the mechanical strength or softening of the tube materials or welds;
  • Observation of sequence of the crack initiation and propagation;
  • Assessment of the heat‐treatments (incl. PWHT) from microstructural examinations, quality of welds and fabrication defects in welds.

2. Perform pipeline stress analysis of HP bypass steam piping system. This included:

  • Reviewing the design/ isometric drawings clearly showing all dimensions and piping connections of HP bypass steam piping system.
  • Reviewing and analysing the inspection data/ information of hangers and supports collected during hot and cold condition inspection.
  • Performing pipeline stress analysis of the piping system using CEASER II software.

3.  Reviewing the design and operating parameters, previous failure and maintenance history;

4.  Reviewing the existing welding & NDT records obtained from construction and during replacement of failed piping.

5.  Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCA) based on the findings of above investigations to determine the actual causes of failure/ damage mechanism(s);

6. Performing life assessment of higher stress regions of the piping system based on the findings of pipeline stress analysis.

7. Submitting a report covering results of investigations, failure analysis, stress analysis, life assessment, detail explanation of root causes & recommendations for any further actions to be taken to prevent reoccurrence of failures and for safe operation of the component.

For more information on our failure analysis services, please click here.

Recent Completed Project on 'Root Cause Failure Analysis Study of Methanol Reformer Pigtails' for an Asian Petrochemical Plant

An Asian petrochemical plant requested ETD to provide a quotation to perform testing, Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCA) and Life assessment Study, initially for two methanol reformer pigtail parts that have been removed from service. It was then proposed to examine a further four pigtail samples (two that have been removed from service, and two as-new samples).

The scope of the work included:

  • Visual and dimensional examination of the (2 off) pigtail samples including internal and external appearance;
  • Assessment of condition of the internal and external surface including identification of inclusions/ contaminations, welding defects etc (if any exists);
  • Chemical analysis of weld material to determine the chemical composition of the pigtail weld filler material to establish actual material constituents and the level of aluminium & titanium;
  • Metallographic examination of the pigtail samples using optical microscopy to assess the condition of internal and external surfaces, to identify phase changes in microstructure / material degradation/ precipitations and also to identify the damage mechanism(s);
  • Hardness testing and evaluation to determine the equivalent tensile strength values (using published hardness/ UTS correlation tables) to assess the mechanical strength or softening of the pigtail materials or welds;
  • Basic review of design drawings, design & operating parameters, previous failure and maintenance history.
  • Detailing condition assessment and/or RCA based on the findings of above investigations to determine whether there are any damages/ cracks and the root cause(s) of the damage.
  • Remaining life assessment of the pigtail components based on the findings of above detailed investigations.
  • Examination of these specimens using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to assess the presence and volume of gamma-prime phase and perform detailed analysis of microstructure.
  • Performing Post Weld Heat Treatment (PWHT) on the welded joint of the pigtail samples;
  • Comparing of the results, to determine the effect of in-service aging on the component.
  • Compiling a report covering results of all above investigations, condition & life assessment, root cause analysis & recommendations for any further actions to be taken for safe operation of the pigtail components which are in service.

ETD has established expertise in the failure analysis. For more information about our failure analysis services please click here.

 

Recent Completed Project on 'Failure Analysis of Submerged Chain Conveyor' for a Middle Eastern Power Plant

ETD is pleased to announce the successful recent completion of a failure analysis project. A Middle Eastern power plant invited ETD to submit a proposal to carry out failure analysis of 3 (three) links chain samples removed from the failed/ damaged areas. The work involves performing chain failure analysis study including root cause analysis of damage mechanism(s) based on laboratory testing and assessment on the removed chain samples.

The work carried out included:

  • Firstly, visual and dimensional examination was performed in order to assess any obvious issues with the quality of surface appearance of the samples, corrosion damage, past repairs and any other signs of distress etc and to select representative locations for more detailed investigation such as locations of the exact failed areas or where the presence of any defects/ corrosion has been detected.
  • Secondly, metallographic examination was completed on sections through the wall of the chain samples using optical microscopy. This enabled the condition of surfaces to be assessed and the damage mechanism(s) to be identified. The microstructure was then examined for evidence of degradation and to identify the damage mechanism(s).
  • Next, hardness testing and evaluation was performed on the chain material to assess the mechanical condition of the material. The measured hardness values were converted to equivalent tensile strength values (using published hardness/UTS correlation tables, ASME standards etc) to assess the mechanical strength or softening of the chain materials.
  • Then, chemical analysis of the base material concluded to determine the chemical composition of the chain material to establish actual material constituents which will be compared against standard design specification.
  • Once we had the results from above, Root Cause Failure analysis (RCA) was carried out based on the detailed information gathered on respective components.
  • Lastly, a report was issued detailing the findings with photographic records including test results, images, detail explanation of root causes and highlighting any possible causes for concern and the chain integrity. The report also included recommendations for possible remedial actions that may prevent re-occurrence of failures and improve component integrity.

For more information about our failure analysis services please click here.

Recent Completed Project on 'Failure Analysis of Economiser Tubes' for a Middle Eastern Power Plant

Following recent findings of a leakage ETD were approached to carry out root cause failure analysis on an economiser tube removed from a coal-fired power plant in the Middle East.

ETD Consulting (ETD) has been involved in a number of consultancy projects and is internationally considered to be an industry expert in matters concerning power plant materials, operation, maintenance, inspection and life assessment, failure analysis, particularly for issues related to carbon steel, low alloy steel & P91/ T91 steel components. ETD has been involved in a number of failure analyses including root cause analysis of damage mechanism, inspection and consultancy projects concerning carbon & all alloy steels for power plants worldwide.  

The objectives and scope of the work to be carried out was:

  • Visual and dimensional examination of the tube sample including internal deposit, appearance and condition of tube surfaces;
  • Macroscopic analysis to assess the physical appearance of tube/weld joint;
  • Metallographic examination of the tube sample using optical microscopy to assess the condition of internal and external surfaces, weld joint, material degradation and also to identify the damage mechanism(s);
  • Further assessment of selected tube area by using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) to confirm the damage mechanism(s), if necessary;
  • Hardness testing and evaluation to determine the equivalent tensile strength values (using published hardness/UTS correlation tables) to assess the mechanical strength or softening of the tube materials or welds;
  • Chemical analysis of base material to determine the chemical composition of the tube material to establish actual material constituents;
  • Chemical analysis of internal oxide/ deposits to determine the presence of impurities and constituents that may lead to the failure (depends on the oxide thickness), if necessary;
  • Basic review of design drawings, operating parameters, previous failure and maintenance history;
  • Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCA) based on the findings of above investigations to determine the actual causes of damage mechanism(s);
  • Report covering results of investigations, failure analysis, detail explanation of root causes & recommendations for any further actions to be taken to prevent reoccurrence of failures and for safe operation of the component.

ETD has established expertise in the failure analysis. For more information about our failure analysis services please click here.

Recent Completed Project on 'Root Cause Failure Analysis of a Push Plate Sub Sample' for an Asian Power Plant

ETD is pleased to announce the successful recent completion of a failure analysis project.

An Asian based client approached ETD to provide a quotation to perform Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCA) of a push plate sub sample.

The scope of the work carried out was:

  • Visual examination of the sample including component appearance, evidence of corrosion and/or other surface defects;
  • Assessment of condition of the surfaces;
  • Dimensional examination of the sample to examine the thickness;
  • Chemical analysis of base material to determine the chemical composition of the sample material to establish actual material constituents;
  • Metallographic examination of the sample using optical microscopy to assess the condition of surfaces, material degradation and also to identify the damage mechanism(s);
  • Further assessment using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) to confirm the damage mechanism;
  • Hardness testing and evaluation to determine the equivalent tensile strength values (using published hardness/UTS correlation tables) to assess the mechanical strength or softening of the sample materials or welds;
  • Basic review of design drawings, operating parameters, previous failure and maintenance history.
  • Root Cause Failure Analysis (RCA) based on the findings of above investigations.
  • Report covering results of investigations, RCA and recommendations for any further actions to be taken for safe operation of the components.

For more information on our Failure Analysis services please click here.